Child neglect and psychological abuse
Child neglect (also called psychological abuse) is a form of child abuse that occurs when someone intentionally does not provide a child with food, water, shelter, clothing, medical care, or other necessities.
Other forms of child neglect include:
Allowing the child to witness violence or severe abuse between parents or adults
Ignoring, insulting, or threatening the child with violence
Not providing the child with a safe environment and adult emotional support
Showing reckless disregard for the child's well being
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The rate at which children are physically and emotionally neglected is difficult to define.
Risk factors may include:
Abused children are at risk of becoming abusers themselves as adults.
Symptoms of psychological abuse may include:
Eating disorders, leading to weight loss or poor weight gain
Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety
Vague physical complaints
See also: Failure to thrive
Signs and tests
Children with suspected emotional abuse should be examined by a trained mental health professional. All neglected or psychologically abused children should be examined for other forms of physical abuse.
If you think a child is in immediate danger because of abuse or neglect, you should call 911.
If you suspect that a child is being abused, report it right away. Most states have a child abuse hotline. You may also use the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD).
The law requires health care workers, school employees, and child care professionals to report suspected abuse.
Treatment of the abused child may include nutritional and mental health therapy.
It may be necessary to remove the child from the home to prevent further abuse.
Treatment for abusers may involve parenting classes and treatment for mental illness, alcohol, or drug abuse.
With treatment, many children and parents can be reunited as a family. The long-term outcome depends on:
As in all forms of child abuse, severe injury or death is possible.
Other long-term problems may include:
Becoming an abuser in adulthood
Lack of self confidence
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if a child has:
Physical changes, such as unexplained injuries, weight loss, or severe tiredness
Unexplained behavior changes
Suspected child abuse of any form must be reported to the authorities.
Community programs, such as home visits by nurses and social workers, can help families change behaviors or prevent the start of abuse in high-risk families.
School-based programs to improve parenting, communication, and self-image can help prevent future abuse and may help to identify abused children.
Parenting classes are very helpful. Newlywed adults without children should be encouraged to take these classes before they have each child. The dynamics in the home change when each new child is born.
Johnson CF. Abuse and neglect of children. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2007:chap 36.
Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.