Catecholamines - urine
Catecholamines are small substances made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland.
The major catecholamines are dopamine
, and epinephrine. These substances break down into other substances, which leave your body through your urine.
A urine test can be done to measure the level of catecholamines in your body.
Catecholamines can also be measured with a blood test. See also: Catecholamines - blood
Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA); Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)
How the test is performed
For this test, you must urinate into a special bag or container every time you use the bathroom for 24-hour period.
For an infant:
Thoroughly wash the area around the urethra (the hole where urine flows out). Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end).
Check the infant frequently, and change the bag after the infant has urinated. Empty the urine from the bag into the container provided by your doctor.
Because lively infants can cause the bag to move, this procedure may take a couple of attempts. You may need extra collection bags.
When finished, label the container and return it as instructed.
How to prepare for the test
and vigorous exercise may affect the test results.
Foods that can increase urinary catecholamines include coffee, tea, bananas, chocolate, cocoa, citrus fruits, and vanilla. Avoid these foods for several days before the test.
Certain drugs can also affect the test results. Your health care provider may tell you to stop taking certain medicines before the test. Never stop taking medicine without first talking to your doctor.
The following drugs can increase catecholamine measurements:
Drugs that can decrease catecholamine measurements include:
- MAO inhibitors
How the test will feel
The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.
Why the test is performed
The test is usually done to diagnose an adrenal gland tumor called pheochromocytoma
. It may also be used to diagnose neuroblastoma
. Urine catecholamine levels are increased in most persons with neuroblastoma.
The urine test for catecholamines may also be used to monitor those who are receiving treatment for these conditions.
All of the catecholamines are broken down into inactive substances that appear in the urine:
- Dopamine becomes homovanillic acid (HVA)
- Norepinephrine becomes normetanephrine and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)
- Epinephrine becomes metanephrine and VMA
The following normal values are the amount of the substance found in the urine over a 24-hour period:
- Dopamine: 65 - 400 micrograms (mcg)/24 hours
- Epinephrine: 0.5 - 20 mcg/24 hours
- Metanephrine: 24 - 96 mcg/24 hours (some laboratories give the range as 140 - 785 mcg/24-hours)
- Norepinephrine: 15 - 80 mcg/24 hours
- Normetanephrine: 75 - 375 mcg/24 hours
- Total urine catecholamines: 14 - 110 mcg/24 hours
- VMA: 2 - 7 milligrams (mg)/24 hours
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.
What abnormal results mean
Elevated levels of urinary catecholamines may indicate:
The test may also be performed for:
What the risks are
There are no risks.
Several foods and drugs, as well as physical activity and stress, can affect the accuracy of this test.
Young WF. Adrenal medulla, catecholamines, and pheochromocytoma. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 246.
Young WF. Endocrine hypertension. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 16.
David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.