Alcohol use and safe drinking
Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor.
Beer consumption; Wine consumption; Hard liquor consumption; Safe drinking
Alcohol is one of the most widely used drug substances in the world.
Alcohol use is not only an adult problem. Most American high school seniors have had an alcoholic drink within the past month, despite the fact that the legal drinking age is 21 years old in the U.S.
About 1 in 5 teens are considered "problem drinkers." This means that they:
Have accidents related to alcohol use
Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol
THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL
Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them:
- Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can have more.
- Wine is usually 12 to 15% alcohol.
- Hard liquor is about 45% alcohol.
Alcohol gets into your bloodstream quickly.
The amount and type of food in your stomach can change how quickly this occurs. For example, high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods can make your body absorb alcohol more slowly.
Certain types of alcoholic drinks get into your bloodstream faster. A carbonated (fizzy) alcoholic drink, such as champagne, will be absorbed faster than a non-carbonated drink.
Alcohol slows your breathing rate, heart rate, and how well your brain functions. These effects may appear within 10 minutes and peak at around 40 to 60 minutes. Alcohol stays in your bloodstream until it is broken down by the liver. The amount of alcohol in your blood is called your "blood alcohol level." If you drink alcohol faster than the liver can break it down, this level rises.
Your blood alcohol level is used to legally define whether or not you are drunk. The blood alcohol legal limit usually falls between 0.08 and 0.10 in most states. Below is a list of blood alcohol levels and the likely symptoms.
- 0.05 -- reduced inhibitions
- 0.10 -- slurred speech
- 0.20 -- euphoria and motor impairment
- 0.30 -- confusion
- 0.40 -- stupor
- 0.50 -- coma
- 0.60 -- respiratory paralysis and death
You can have symptoms of "being drunk" at blood alcohol levels below the legal definition of being drunk. Also, people who drink alcohol frequently may not have symptoms until a higher blood alcohol level is reached.
HEALTH RISKS OF ALCOHOL
Alcohol increases the risk of:
- Alcoholism or alcohol dependence
- Falls, drownings, and other accidents
- Head, neck, stomach, and breast cancers
- Motor vehicle accidents
- Risky sex behaviors, unplanned or unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
- Suicide and homicide
Drinking during pregnancy can harm the developing baby. Severe birth defects or fetal alcohol syndrome
If you drink alcohol, it is best to do so in moderation. Moderation means the drinking is not getting you intoxicated (or drunk) and you are drinking no more than 1 drink per day if you are a woman and no more than 2 if you are a man. A drink is defined as 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of liquor.
Here are some ways to drink responsibly, provided you do not have a drinking problem, are of legal age to drink alcohol, and are not pregnant:
- Never drink alcohol and drive a car.
- If you are going to drink, have a designated driver, or plan an alternative way home, such as a taxi or bus.
- Do not drink on an empty stomach. Snack before and while drinking alcohol.
If you are taking medication, including over-the-counter drugs, check with your doctor before drinking alcohol. Alcohol can make the effects of many medicines stronger. It can also interact with other medicines, making them ineffective or dangerous or make you sick.
Do not drink if you have a history of alcohol abuse or alcoholism.
If alcoholism runs in your family, you may be at increased risk of developing alcoholism yourself, so you may want to avoid drinking alcohol altogether.
CALL YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER IF:
- You are concerned about your personal alcohol use or that of a family member
- You are interested in more information regarding alcohol use, alcohol abuse
, or support groups
- You are unable to reduce or stop your alcohol consumption, in spite of attempts to stop drinking
Local Alcoholics Anonymous or Al-anon/Alateen groups
Public or private mental health agencies
School or work counselors
Student or employee health centers
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. Available at: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health. Accessed on February 24, 2014.
O'Connor PG. Alcohol abuse and dependence. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 32.
Sherin K, Seikel S. Alcohol use disorders. Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 49.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: recommendation statement. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/alcmisuse/alcmisuserfinalrs.htm. Accessed on February 24, 2014.
Fred K. Berger, MD, Addiction and Forensic Psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.