Navigate Up

Pediatric Center - A-Z Index

#
Q
Z

Print This Page

Canavan disease

Canavan disease is an inherited condition that affects the breakdown and use (metabolism) of aspartic acid .

Alternative Names

Spongy degeneration of the brain; Aspartoacylase deficiency

Causes

Canavan disease is passed down (inherited) through families. It is more common among the Ashkenazi Jewish population than in the general population.

The lack of the enzyme, aspartoacylase, leads to a buildup of material called N-acetylaspartic acid in the brain. This causes the white matter of the brain to break down (deteriorate).

Symptoms

Symptoms usually begin in the first year of life. Parents tend to notice when a child is not reaching certain developmental milestones, including head control.

Symptoms include:

  • Abnormal posture with flexed arms and straight legs
  • Backflow of food material into the nose (nasal regurgitation)
  • Feeding problems
  • Increasing head size (macrocephaly )
  • Irritability
  • Poor muscle tone , especially of the neck muscles
  • A lack of head control when baby is pulled from a lying to a sitting position (head lag)
  • Poor visual tracking or blindness
  • Reflux with vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Severe intellectual disability
  • Swallowing difficulties

Exams and Tests

  • Exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia)
  • Joint stiffness
  • Loss of tissue in the optic nerve of the eye (optic atrophy)

Tests:

  • Blood chemistry
  • CSF chemistry
  • Genetic testing for aspartoacylase gene mutations
  • Head CT scan
  • Head MRI scan
  • Urine chemistry for elevated aspartic acid

Treatment

Treatment mostly aims to ease the symptoms of the disease. Lithium and other drugs are being investigated.

Support Groups

Additional information and resources are available from:

Outlook (Prognosis)

With Canavan disease, the central nervous system breaks down. Patients are likely to become disabled.

Death often occurs before 18 months of age. However, some patients live until they are teenagers or, rarely, young adults.

Possible Complications

This is often a fatal disorder. It includes severe disabilities such as:

  • Blindness
  • Inability to walk
  • Intellectual disability

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if your child has any symptoms of Canavan disease.

Prevention

Genetic counseling is recommended for people who want to have children and have a family history of Canavan disease. Counseling should be considered if both parents are of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. For this group, DNA testing can almost always tell if the parents are carriers.

A diagnosis may be made before the baby is born (prenatal diagnosis) by testing the amniotic fluid .

References

Rezvani I and Melvin JJ. Defects in metabolism of amino acids. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme III JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 79.

Updated: 10/29/2013

Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, FACMG, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section on Medical Genetics, Winston-Salem, NC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.


©  UPMC | Affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Supplemental content provided by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions. All rights reserved.

For help in finding a doctor or health service that suits your needs, call the UPMC Referral Service at 412-647-UPMC (8762) or 1-800-533-UPMC (8762). Select option 1.

UPMC is an equal opportunity employer. UPMC policy prohibits discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, age, sex, genetics, sexual orientation, marital status, familial status, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected group status. Further, UPMC will continue to support and promote equal employment opportunity, human dignity, and racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity. This policy applies to admissions, employment, and access to and treatment in UPMC programs and activities. This commitment is made by UPMC in accordance with federal, state, and/or local laws and regulations.

Medical information made available on UPMC.com is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You should not rely entirely on this information for your health care needs. Ask your own doctor or health care provider any specific medical questions that you have. Further, UPMC.com is not a tool to be used in the case of an emergency. If an emergency arises, you should seek appropriate emergency medical services.

For UPMC Mercy Patients: As a Catholic hospital, UPMC Mercy abides by the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, as determined by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. As such, UPMC Mercy neither endorses nor provides medical practices and/or procedures that contradict the moral teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

© UPMC
Pittsburgh, PA, USA UPMC.com