Navigate Up

Seniors Center - A-Z Index

#
Q
Y
Z

Print This Page

Peritonitis - spontaneous

Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. This is the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs.

Alternative Names

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP)

Causes

Spontaneous peritonitis is most often caused by infection in fluid that collects in the peritoneal cavity (ascites ). The fluid buildup often occurs with advanced liver or kidney disease.

Risk factors for liver disease include:

  • Very heavy alcohol use
  • Chronic viral hepatitis (hepatitis B or hepatitis C )
  • Other diseases that lead to cirrhosis

Spontaneous peritonitis also occurs in people who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure.

Peritonitis may be due to inflammation, infection, or injury of the intestines.

Symptoms

Other symptoms include:

Exams and Tests

Tests will be done to check for infection and other causes of abdominal pain:

Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause of the peritonitis .

  • Surgery may be needed if peritonitis is caused by a foreign object, such as a catheter used in peritoneal dialysis.
  • Antibiotics may control infection in cases of spontaneous peritonitis with liver or kidney disease.
  • Intravenous therapy can treat dehydration .

You may need to stay in the hospital so health care providers can rule out conditions such as such as appendicitis and diverticulitis .

Outlook (Prognosis)

In most cases, the infection can be treated. However, kidney or liver disease may limit recovery.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of peritonitis. This can be a medical emergency situation.

Prevention

Steps should be taken to prevent infection in people with peritoneal catheters.

Antibiotics may be used:

  • To prevent peritonitis from coming back in people with liver failure
  • To prevent peritonitis in people who have acute gastrointestinal bleeding due to other conditions

References

Garcia-Tiso G. Cirrhosis and its sequelae. In: Goldman L,Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 156.

Prather C. Inflammatory and anatomic diseases of the intestine, peritoneum, mesentery, and omentum. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 144.

Runyon BA. Ascites and spontaneous bacterialperitonitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 91.

Updated: 8/11/2014

Jenifer K. Lehrer, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Frankford-Torresdale Hospital, Aria Health System, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.


©  UPMC | Affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Supplemental content provided by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions. All rights reserved.

For help in finding a doctor or health service that suits your needs, call the UPMC Referral Service at 412-647-UPMC (8762) or 1-800-533-UPMC (8762). Select option 1.

UPMC is an equal opportunity employer. UPMC policy prohibits discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, age, sex, genetics, sexual orientation, marital status, familial status, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected group status. Further, UPMC will continue to support and promote equal employment opportunity, human dignity, and racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity. This policy applies to admissions, employment, and access to and treatment in UPMC programs and activities. This commitment is made by UPMC in accordance with federal, state, and/or local laws and regulations.

Medical information made available on UPMC.com is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You should not rely entirely on this information for your health care needs. Ask your own doctor or health care provider any specific medical questions that you have. Further, UPMC.com is not a tool to be used in the case of an emergency. If an emergency arises, you should seek appropriate emergency medical services.

For UPMC Mercy Patients: As a Catholic hospital, UPMC Mercy abides by the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, as determined by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. As such, UPMC Mercy neither endorses nor provides medical practices and/or procedures that contradict the moral teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

© UPMC
Pittsburgh, PA, USA UPMC.com