Navigate Up

Full Library - A-Z Index


Print This Page

Iron deficiency anemia

Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia.

Iron deficiency anemia occurs when your body does not have enough iron. Iron helps make red blood cells.

Reticulocytes

Alternative Names

Anemia - iron deficiency

Causes

Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia.

Red blood cells bring oxygen to the body's tissues. Healthy red blood cells are made in your bone marrow. Red blood cells circulate through your body for 3 to 4 months. Parts of your body, such as your spleen, remove old blood cells.

Iron is a key part of red blood cells. Without iron, the blood cannot carry oxygen effectively. Your body normally gets iron through your diet. It also reuses iron from old red blood cells.

You get iron deficiency anemia when your body's iron stores run low. This can occur because:

  • You lose more blood cells and iron than your body can replace
  • Your body does not do a good job of absorbing iron
  • Your body is able to absorb iron, but you are not eating enough foods that contain iron
  • Your body needs more iron than normal (such as if you are pregnant or breastfeeding)

Bleeding can cause iron loss. Common causes of bleeding are:

  • Heavy, long, or frequent menstrual periods
  • Cancer in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, or colon
  • Esophageal varices , usually from cirrhosis
  • The use of aspirin, ibuprofen, or arthritis medicines for a long time, which can cause gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Peptic ulcer disease

The body may not absorb enough iron in your diet due to:

You may not get enough iron in your diet if:

  • You are a strict vegetarian
  • You are an older adult and do not eat a full diet

Symptoms

You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild.

Most of the time, symptoms are mild at first and develop slowly. Symptoms may include:

  • Feeling grumpy
  • Feeling weak or tired more often than usual, or with exercise
  • Headaches
  • Problems concentrating or thinking

As the anemia gets worse, symptoms may include:

Symptoms of the conditions that cause iron deficiency anemia include:

  • Dark, tar-colored stools or blood
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding (women)
  • Pain in the upper belly (from ulcers)
  • Weight loss (in people with cancer)

Exams and Tests

To diagnose anemia, your doctor may order these blood tests:

Hemoglobin

Tests to check iron levels in your blood include:

Tests that may be done to look for the cause of iron deficiency:

Treatment

Treatment may include taking iron supplements and eating iron-rich foods .

Iron supplements (most often ferrous sulfate) are needed to build up the iron stores in your body. Most of the time, your doctor or nurse will measure your iron levels before starting supplements.

If you cannot take iron by mouth, you may need to take it through a vein (intravenous ) or by an injection into the muscle.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women will need to take extra iron because they often cannot get enough iron from their normal diets.

Your hematocrit should return to normal after 2 months of iron therapy. You will need to keep taking iron for another 6 to 12 months to replace the body's iron stores in the bone marrow.

Iron-rich foods include:

  • Chicken and turkey
  • Dried lentils, peas, and beans
  • Fish
  • Meats (liver is the highest source)
  • Peanut butter
  • Soybeans
  • Whole-grain bread

Other sources include:

  • Oatmeal
  • Raisins, prunes, and apricots
  • Spinach, kale, and other greens

Outlook (Prognosis)

With treatment, the outcome is likely to be good. However, it does depend on the cause.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if:

  • You have symptoms of iron deficiency
  • You notice blood in your stool

Prevention

A balanced diet should include enough iron. Red meat, liver, and egg yolks are high sources of iron. Flour, bread, and some cereals are fortified with iron. If advised by your doctor, take iron supplements if you are not getting enough iron in your diet.

References

Brittenham GM. Disorders of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al., eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 34.

Updated: 2/24/2014

Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.


©  UPMC | Affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Supplemental content provided by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions. All rights reserved.

For help in finding a doctor or health service that suits your needs, call the UPMC Referral Service at 412-647-UPMC (8762) or 1-800-533-UPMC (8762). Select option 1.

UPMC is an equal opportunity employer. UPMC policy prohibits discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, age, sex, genetics, sexual orientation, marital status, familial status, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected group status. Further, UPMC will continue to support and promote equal employment opportunity, human dignity, and racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity. This policy applies to admissions, employment, and access to and treatment in UPMC programs and activities. This commitment is made by UPMC in accordance with federal, state, and/or local laws and regulations.

Medical information made available on UPMC.com is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You should not rely entirely on this information for your health care needs. Ask your own doctor or health care provider any specific medical questions that you have. Further, UPMC.com is not a tool to be used in the case of an emergency. If an emergency arises, you should seek appropriate emergency medical services.

For UPMC Mercy Patients: As a Catholic hospital, UPMC Mercy abides by the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, as determined by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. As such, UPMC Mercy neither endorses nor provides medical practices and/or procedures that contradict the moral teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

© UPMC
Pittsburgh, PA, USA UPMC.com